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This page lists many of the words and terms used by repitile breeders. Glossary of
reptile genetics defined.
Aberrant = Deviating
from the ordinary, normal or expected (Bechtel 1995).
= A Type of Melanism in which the specimen is not completely black, but shows a change in the elements of
the basic pattern as consequence of the number of isolated black spots or dots in the nonblack areas of the pattern (Peters,
Adaptation, biological = Alteration of structure
or function to suit a particular environment (Bechtel, 1995).
Albinism = The heritable condition observed as the inability to form melanin in the
skin and scales (Allaby, 1991). Absence of pigment in animals usually pigmented; the state of having colorless chromatophores
(Holmes, 1979). Lacking pigment and therefore appearing pink or white (Mattison, 1986). A genetic absence of tyrosinase
(Bentley, 1982). The appearance created by a lack of black pigment in the dermal and epidermal chromatophores (Barker,
Albino = Normal pigment is absent from the scales (Allaby, 1985). The
blood pigment hemoglobin is present and may result in pinkish specimens or specimens with red eyes (Mattison, 1991).
Having the absent or deficient melanin (McEachern, 1991). Widely used term for "Amelanistic".(Bechtel, 1995).
Allele = A shortening of the term allelomorph;
one of two or more forms of a gene arising by mutation and occupying the same relative position (locus) on the homologous
chromosome; may be distinguished by their differing effects on the phenotype (Allaby, 1985). Either of the two
paired genes which affect an inheritable trait (Bechtel, 1995).
Allophore = A cell or chromatophore containing red pigment in the skin
of reptiles, amphibians, and fish (Peters, 1964; Holmes, 1979).
Amelanism = A term sometimes used instead of Amelanistic (McEachern, 1991).
The appearance resulting from a lack of melanin (Barker, 2006).
Amelanistic = Having
no melanin. The pigment melanin, which is responsible for black, brown, and yellow colors, is absent; specimens are pale
in color, although they may have some color, especially red or pink, owing to the presence of other pigments (Mattison, 1991).
A single recessive mutation resulting in a lack of black pigment referred in both skin and eyes; bright red and orange predominate
(McEachern, 1991). Containing no melanin (Bechtel, 1995). The appearance created by the lack of all Eumelanin
and BCM (Barker, 2006).
Amino acid = Any of the subunit building blocks that are covalently
linked to form proteins (Klug, 2003). Organic compounds that are the building blocks of protein (Bechtel, 1995).
Anal scale = A single unpaired scale that covers the cloacal opening.
Although it may be regarded as the posteriormost scale in the series of ventrals, the anal scale is not included in counts
of the ventral scales (Barker, 2006).
Anerythristic = Having
a lack of red pigment and all red markings (Mattison, 1991). A mutation that can be caused by two separate defective
genes resulting in a lack of red and orange pigment; predominantly marked with grays but also black, brown, or yellow (McEachern,
1991). An appearance that is without red; and appearance usually assumed to be the result of reduced or absent Erythrophore
pigment production in the skin (Barker, 2006).
Angle of the jaw = The area on the lateral surface of the head positioned above
the articulation of the upper and lower jaw bones, usually at the widest area across the head (Barker, 2006).
Anomaly = A deviation from the ordinary, normal,
or expected (Bechtel, 1995).
Anterior = An anatomical direction meaning toward the front or toward the head (Barker,
Anterior prefrontals = A single pair of large plate-like prefrontals in contact with
the internasals and in full contact along the midline (Barker, 2006).
Appearance = The perceived outward aspect of a snake resulting from the
combination of its color and pattern. Sometimes used as a synonym of phenotype (Barker, 2006).
Arboreal = Living in trees (Bechtel, 1995).
Axanthic = Frequently
having a lack of yellow pigment; a term sometimes used instead of anerythristic, but not appropriately (McEachern, 1991).
In the descriptive sense, an appearance lacking the expected visual contributions from yellow or orange pigments (Barker,
Axanthism = Literally “without yellow.” The absence of
yellow or orange color (Barker, 2006). Absence of yellow pigment, or absent or deficient xanthophore pigment metabolism (Bechtel,
Azygous = Occurring singly; unpaired (Barker, 2006).
Backcrossing = Mating of an organism with a parent (Bechtel, 1995).
BCM = The acronym for black cellular material, an inclusive term to refer to
all the chemical compounds of black pigment found in melanophores (Nicolaus, 2001).
Bilateral = Occurring on both sides of an organism (Bechtel, 1995).
Biochrome = A pigment produced in a chromatophore (Nicolaus, 2001).
Breed true = A phenotype for a trait is said to breed true if two parents
with that phenotype produce offspring of that same phenotype exclusively. In reference to a familial trait that has
been reproduced through inbreeding / line breeding enough generations so that the offspring when bred together will produce
offspring exhibiting the trait in question.
Carotene = A yellow skin pigment widely distributed in animals (Holmes, 1979).
Yellow pigment (Bentley, 1982).
Carotenoids = Fat-soluble pigments widely distributed in animals and including
carotene and xanthophylls (Holmes, 1979).
= Same as carotene.
Character = An observable phenotypic attribute of an organism (Klug,
Chlorophane = A green chromophane (Barker, 2006).
Chromacyte = Any cell containing a pigment (Holmes, 1979).
Chromatophores = Pigment cells (Bechtel, 1995). Cells in the skin that
usually contain pigments of different colors (Bentley, 1982). A colorless body in cytoplasm and developing onto a leucoplast,
chloroplast, or chromoplast (Holmes, 1979). Any cell that bears pigment and thereby plays a role in the overall color
pattern of the animal (Peters, 1964).
Chromoblast = An undifferentiated pigment cell in an embryo (Barker, 2006).
Chromophane = Retinal pigment in lower vertebrates (Holmes, 1979).
= Each cell in every living thing has a nucleus. Much of the nucleus is made
up of a constant number of paired chromosomes. Each chromosome is a single, long strand of DNA in a protein matrix. The strand
of DNA contains many genes.
Chromosome = Occurring in the nucleus of a cell (Allaby, 1985). Composed
mainly of DNA and basic protein, and bearing the genes being arranged in linear order (Holmes, 1979). Chromosomes are
arranged in pairs with the genes being arranged on the chromosome (Mattison, 1991). The presence of homologous chromosomes
is referred to as the diploid state (Allaby, 1991). Nuclear inclusion containing genes arranged in linear sequence (Bechtel,
Circumoculars = The series of scales that rim the eye, including the preoculars,
a single supracular, the postoculars, suboculars, and supralabials (Barker, 2006).
Cloaca = The common chamber in the body of reptiles and amphibians into which the
reproductive, intestinal, and urinary ducts open (Cogger, 1992). The external opening of the cloaca is termed the vent,
anus, or cloacal opening (Barker, 2006).
Cloacae = Plural of cloaca (Barker, 2006).
Cloacal opening = The external opening of the cloaca; also termed the vent, or
anus (Barker, 2006).
Co-dominant = A gene that causes the homozygous form to look different than the wild-type
and the heterozygous form to have traits of both. Some examples of this would be the Pastel, Woma Tiger, Yellow Belly, Mojave, Red Axanthic, Platinum, Butter, Cinnamon, Fire, Calico and Spot nose Ball Pythons.
Complete dominance = See dominant gene.
Crossing over = The exchange of chromosomal material (parts of chromosomal
arms) between homologous chromosomes by breakage and reunion. The exchange of material between nonsister chromatids during
meiosis is the basis of genetic recombination (Klug, 2003). During meiosis, the breaking of one material and one paternal
chromosome, resulting in the exchange of corresponding sections of DNA and the rejoining of the chromosome. This process can
result in the exchange of alleles between chromosomes (Hartwell, 2004). Compare recombination.
Cysteine = A nonessential amino acid (meaning that the body can synthesis it) important
in the synthesis of pheomelanin (Barker, 2006).
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) = Molecules bearing genetic information
of all living cells. Gene. Also referred to as “unit of inheritance.” A molecule containing the genetic information of all living cells
(Bechtel, 1995). A macromolecule usually consisting of antiparallel polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen
bonds, in which the sugar residues are deoxyribose. The primary carrier of genetic information (Klug, 2003). The molecule
of heredity that encodes genetic information (Hartwell, 2004).
Designer appearance = Popular term referring to the phenotype resulting from the
selectivebreeding to combine two or more appearances, each caused by a different mutation (Barker, 2006). See hybrid.
cross = Mating of individuals heterozygous for two separate inherited traits
Dimorphism = Occurrence of two forms, distinct in color or other characteristic,
among animals of the same species.
Diploid = Having two sets of chromosomes; the typical zygote arrangement of chromosomes(Holmes,
1979). An individual with two chromosome sets in each cell, excluding the sexchromosome (Allaby, 1985). See haploid.
Dominance series = Dominance relations of all possible pairs of alleles are arranged
in order from most dominant to most recessive (Hartwell, 2004).
Dominant = A gene that causes an animal to look different than the wild-type and where the
homozygous form and the heterozygous form look the same as each other. A simple example of this would be the Spider, Pinstripe and
Granite Ball Pythons. The
normal form of the gene that is usually denoted by an uppercase symbol (McEachern, 1991). An allele that determines
the phenotype of the heterozygote (Lincoln, 1990). An allele that can determine the phenotype whether heterozygous or
homozygous (Bechtel, 1995).
Dominant negative = Mechanism of dominance in which some alleles of genes encode
subunits of multimers that block the activity of the sub units produced by wild type alleles (Hartwell, 2004).
Dominant suppression = A form of epistasis in which a dominant allele at one locus
suppresses the effect of a dominant allele at another locus (Klug, 2003).
Dopa = 3, 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, an intermediate chemical in the synthesis
of melanin (Bechtel, 1995).
Dorsal = Pertaining to the back; an anatomical direction meaning toward the back
(Barker, 2006). The top, back, or uppermost surface of an organism (Bechtel, 1995).
Dorsolateral = Pertaining to the area between the dorsal and lateral surfaces
Dorsum = The upper surface or back of a python (Barker, 2006).
Double Heterozygous = being
heterozygous for two different traits.
Ectopic expression = Gene expression that occurs out side the cell or tissue where
the gene is normally expressed (Hartwell, 2004).
Ectothermic (Poikilothermic or cold-blooded) = Possessing no internal
means for controlling body temperature (Bechtel, 1995).
Embryo = Organism in early stages of development, before it is physiologically
independent (Bechtel, 1995).
Endothermic (Homeothermic or warm-blooded) = Having ability to maintain constant
body temperature in different ambient temperatures (Bechtel, 1995).
Epistasis = The situation occurring when one allele of one gene obliterates
the phenotypic expression of all other allelic alternatives of another gene (Suzuki, et al., 1986). A gene interaction
in which the affects of an allele at one gene hide the effect of alleles at another gene (Hartwell, 2004). Nonreciprocal
interaction between genes such that one gene interferes with or prevents the expression of another gene (Klug, 2003).
Erythrism = Having red skin and scales caused by a lack of black pigments
(eumelanin), which allows the red pigment (pheomelanin) to dominate the color of the appearance (Allaby, 1991). Abnormal
or excessive amount of red coloring (Holmes, 1979). The occurrence of unusual amounts of redness in an individual or
population as compared to the normal pattern of the species (Peters, 1964).
Erythrochromism = See erythrism.
Erythrocystic = See erythrism.
Erythrophores = Reddish-purple pigment-bearing cells (Holmes, 1979).
Cells containing carotenes or yellow pigment(Bentley, 1982). Xanthophores that appear red (Bechtel, 1985).
Erythrophore = Red chromatophore (Bechtel, 1985).
Eumelanin = A form of melanin that is black or dark brown (Mattison, 1986).
Black or brown melanin (Bechtel, 1985). See phaeomelanin.
Triple Heterozygous = Heterozygous at three gene loci.
= Two unlike individuals that begin a genetics experiment, or breeding program.
F1 generation = First filial generation; the offspring of the P generation. An F1 is a single member of the
F2 generation = Second filial generation; the offspring of two F1s.
F3 generation = Third filial generation; the offspring of two F2s.
Gene = Unit of heredity that determines the characteristics of the offspring.
Genetics = The study
Genotype = An organism’s genetic composition. Heredity - the transmission
of genetic characters from parents to offspring.
Het = An abbreviation
Heterozygous = Possessing two different genes for a given trait. An animal with one mutated, recessive
gene still appears normal; its mutated gene can be inherited by future offspring. A co-dominant animal is heterozygous for
the dominant form of its mutated gene, yet is different in appearance than both the wild-type and homozygous forms.
Homozygous = A state
in which both genes for a specific trait are the same. When a recessive gene is it its homozygous form, it makes the animal
look different from the wild-type. When a dominant gene is in its homozygous state, it causes the animal to look different
from both the wild-type and the heterozygous (co-dominant) forms.
Hypomelanistic = An animal
having less black and/or brown color than a wild-type.
Leucistic = A pure
white animal with dark eyes.
Locus = A gene's
position on a chromosome (plural: loci)
Melanin = Black
or brown skin pigments.
Melanistic = Abnormally
dark, especially due to an increase of melanin.
Mutation = An abnormal
gene that under certain circumstances can cause an animal to be born with an appearance other than wild-type.
Normal = An animal
with no mutated genes - "wild type" in appearance. (See wild type)
Phenotype = An animal’s
external appearance, as caused by its genotype.
Possible Het = An animal from a known breeding that has either a 50%
or 66% possibility of being "heterozygous" for a mutant gene.
A 66% possible het comes from breeding 2 heterozygous animals together: 50% of the offspring
are heterozygous, 25% will be homozygous, and 25% will be wild-type. Of the normal appearing animals, 66% (or roughly 2 out
of 3) will actually be heterozygous for the mutated gene.
A 50% possible het comes from breeding a heterozygous animal to a wild-type animal. All of the
resulting offspring will be wild-type in appearance, but 50% of them will actually be heterozygous for the mutated gene and
must be bred out to determine which animals are really hets.
Punnett Square = A learning tool for determining the possible outcomes of a given cross
between individuals. It was developed by R.C. Punnett, an early British geneticist.
Recessive = A gene that affects an animal's appearance if it's present in
the homozygous state. A heterozygous animal carrying a mutated, recessive gene looks normal. Some examples of this would be
Albino, Ghost/Hypo, Caramel Albino, Axanthic, Piebald, Clown, Desert Ghost, Orange Ghost, Hypo, Genetic Stripe and Lavender Albino Ball Pythons.
Super = A Commonly used Herpetocultural term for the Dominant
form of a Co-dominant mutation, I.E. Super Pastel.
Tyrosinase = An enzyme required for synthesizing melanin.
Tyrosinase-negative = An albino
whose cells lack tyrosinase, producing a white and yellow/orange animal with pink eyes. A separate albino mutation from tyrosinase-positive.
Also called T- .
Tyrosinase-positive = An albino not able to synthesize melanin, but capable
of synthesizing tyrosinase, which results in lavender-brown skin color. Also referred to as T+.
Wild-type = The way
the animal usually looks in nature (i.e. the normal color and pattern).
Xanthic = Having more yellow color than wild-type.
We really hope this information has been helpful
Best of luck,
Dan & Colette Sutherland of The Snake Keeper and Kevin & Kara McCurley of Nerd
New England Reptile Distributors, Graziani Reptiles and Stuart Taylor of 2 a.m. Creations.